Since the 1980s, research on immigrant adults at all proficiency levels, in the USA, Germany and the UK, on their second language acquisition of the morpho-syntax and the phonology of English or German. Since 1992, lecturer and then professor at Durham and Newcastle Universities with teaching and supervision of UK and overseas undergraduate, MA and PhD students. Since 2004, research on aspects of linguistic competence in relation to the development of basic reading by immigrants with little or no native language schooling/literacy.